Since these early formulations, a number of disorder-specific CBT protocols have been developed that specifically address various cognitive and behavioral maintenance factors of the various disorders. Although these disorder-specific treatment protocols show considerable differences in some of the specific treatment techniques, they all share the same core model and the general approach to treatment.
Consistent with the medical model of psychiatry, the overall goal of treatment is symptom reduction, improvement in functioning, and remission of the disorder. In order to achieve this goal, the patient becomes an active participant in a collaborative problem-solving process to test and challenge the validity of maladaptive cognitions and to modify maladaptive behavioral patterns. Thus, modern CBT refers to a family of interventions that combine a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotion-focused techniques (e.g., Hofmann, 2011; Hofmann, Asmundson, & Beck, in press). Although these strategies greatly emphasize cognitive factors, physiological, emotional, and behavioral components are also recognized for the role that they play in the maintenance of the disorder.